is theorized that rotation occurs after dilation, and the
dilated stomach continues to rotate or twist on itself
until food, fluid and gases are prevented from flowing
into the intestines. This is termed volvulus.
causes for this process however are not well understood.
As mentioned, the dilation is thought to be associated
with delayed emptying of the stomach due to obstruction
or stomach disease but constant overeating with the resulting
stretching of the stomach and increased activity after
eating and drinking have all been theories as to why the
recognition of the signs of bloat is very important to
the successful treatment, and the signs are rapid in onset.
They include increased salivation, unproductive vomiting
and an increase in size to the front portion of the abdomen.
As the stomach dilates circulation of blood through the
stomach can stop causing damage to the stomach. There is
also a decrease in the return of blood to the heart. The
output of blood from the heart then goes down and this
decreases oxygen to the tissue of the rest of the body
resulting in shock. Signs of shock include pale mucus membranes
increased heart rate and weak pulses. This is an emergency
treatment is based on stabilizing the above effects first.
This includes the use of ntravenous fluids, antibiotics,
correction of heart arrhythmias and decompression of the
stomach by a stomach tube through the mouth or by a needle
through the skin and into the stomach.
stabilization has occurred, surgery is performed to fully
decompress and derotate the stomach. The stomach is then
sutured in a way to prevent the condition from recurring.
preventative measures which can be performed include feeding
smaller more frequent meals rather than one large meal
per day, separating dogs in multiple dog households during
feeding to avoid stress and restricting exercise before
and after meals.